FW: Soda Pop and Caries Summary
CGleason at hrsa.gov
Fri Oct 6 09:42:28 PDT 2000
For your information, from a dentists' listserv
From: "Mark Siegal" <MSIEGAL at gw.odh.state.oh.us> at INTERNET
Sent: Thursday, October 05, 2000 12:21 PM
To: <dental-public-health at list.pitt.edu> at INTERNET
Subject: Soda Pop and Caries Summary
From: Mark Siegal, DDS, MPH Ohio Dept. of Health
Recently, I posted a question about peoples' experience with this
issue. I received several responses that were sent directly to me.
One person asked if I would report the responses back to the List.
A. Where has this (political) issue been tackled and what was the
* ADA has a resolution in the hopper addressing this issue.
* The Michigan Dental Association passed a resolution.
* In "City School District Calls Off Pepsi Deal" (Sacramento Bee,
7/11/00), it was reported that the Sacramento City Unified School
District board of trustees removed a proposed district-wide deal ($2
million over 5 years) from their agenda. They called for healthier
snacks, for strengthening nutrition programs in the district's schools
and possible phase-out of sugary, caffeinated drinks. Nearly all of
the district's schools have individual contracts with soft drink
An editorial, "Just Say No: City Schools' Pepsi Deal is Rich, But
Wrong" was published 6/21/00 and 6/28/00.
* This was a major issue for the City of Madison, WI. In August, the
City of Madison school board voted 5-2 to terminate the contract with
Coca-Cola as the sole supplier of soda in the schools. The contract
was worth $615,000 over the last 3 years. Renewal was to be for
$100,000 over 2 years with bonus commissions of approximately
* In Rhode Island this spring, the Dept. of Education was dealing
with 2 school superintendents that had quit the school lunch program
and were serving pop with lunch. The state attorney general was
Suggested contact: Maureen Ross maureenr at doh.state.ri.us.
* Seattle Public School District, in spite of an effort of the
Washington State Oral Health Coalition, accepted a deal ($6 million)
with Coca Cola a couple of years ago with the money to be used for
sports programs and other non-funded school activities.
* From: center for commercial-free public education
<andy at commercialfree.org>
Date: 9/14/00 1:08AM
Subject: School Policies on Commercialism, GAO study
September 14, 1999
For Immediate Release
Andrew Hagelshaw, Center for Commercial-Free Public Education 510
Jill Wynns, San Francisco School Board member 415-828-7204 or
Danny Weiss, of US Representative George Miller*s office
Sample School Policies on Advertising to Kids Released
Thursday*s GAO Report Finds Such Policies Missing or Incomplete in
Oakland, CA<The Center for Commercial-Free Public Education on
released Sample School Board Policies on Commercialism, designed for
any school district in North America. The Center*s Sample Policies
intended to help schools districts define what is and isn*t
commercials in schools. A GAO report issued Thursday confirms the
existence of advertising in many public schools across the US, and
that most districts are lacking adequate policies to deal with the
"The GAO is confirming what our Center has known for years- brand
advertisers are disrupting the public school environment by using
time and space to push their products on a captive audience of kids"
Andrew Hagelshaw, Executive Director for the Center. "It is
for schools, as publicly funded institutions, to promote particular
name products to their students. School districts obviously need
place so that they can address this problem before it gets out of
The Center*s Sample Policies are compiled from five already existing
board policies around the US. One of these policies, the "Commercial
Schools Act" passed in 1999 by the San Francisco Unified School
has already stood up to a challenge from a proposed exclusive
"San Francisco illustrates why every district needs a comprehensive
on school advertising- because policies protect the district from
and dance routines marketers use to take advantage of public school
Hagelshaw. "Policies can also prevent school districts from falling
slippery slope of commercialism. Once a district allows one brand
advertiser, they often end up allowing another, and on and on until
community has lost control over who is really teaching their kids. A
board policy allows a district to put their foot down and draw the
Among the items the GAO found in schools were Channel One (the TV
that contains ads), ZapMe (the computer version of Channel One),
cola vending contracts with Coke and Pepsi, and curriculum
as the McGraw-Hill textbook for sixth graders with ads right in the
problems. The GAO study was ordered by US Representative George
To View the Sample Policies, visit www.commercialfree.org
* Nutrition, Diet & Oral Health
Rugg-Gunn & Nunn
Oxford University Press 1999
"There is evidence from Australia & England that banning the sales of
sweets in school tuck shops reduces the development of dental caries
* I recently looked into this question and put together the
SUGAR, CARBONATED DRINKS, AND DENTAL CARIES IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
Howard Pollick, BDS, MPH
Clinical Professor, Department of Preventive & Restorative Dental
Sciences,School of Dentistry, UCSF
(Prepared for The Dental Health Foundation)
A review of recent studies from a Medline search 1995-2000, using
keywords: caries, sugar, and children yielded 59 citations.
were reviewed and all but 7 were excluded due to lack of information
relating to associations between sugar and/or beverage consumption
Recent studies of children have shown a positive correlation between
dental caries and total sugar consumption,(1,2,3) particularly for
those with high sugar consumption,(2,3) dental caries and frequency
sugar consumption,(4) and consumption of cans of carbonated drinks
dental caries.(1,5) Reported use of sugar-free drinks was not
to be associated with better dental health.(1) Availability of
reduces the effect of sugar on caries. (6,7) One study has shown
deterioration in dental health of children to be associated with the
increased consumption of sweets and other cariogenic between-meal
snacks after starting school.(3)
Thus efforts must be made to reduce sugar consumption and the
consumption of carbonated drinks in schools, particularly in
communities lacking fluoridated water, particularly for children who
not use fluoridated toothpaste twice a day, and for children who
excessive sugar intake.
Schools wishing to enter into a financial contract with companies
promoting carbonated beverages should ensure that there be an
effort to prevent dental caries in schoolchildren. It would be
preferable to find alternative sources of funding that would not
encourage excessive use of carbonated drinks in school.
1. Jones C; Woods K; Whittle G; Worthington H; Taylor G. Sugar,
deprivation and dental caries in 14-year-old children in the north
of England in 1995. Community Dental Health, 1999 Jun, 16(2):68-71
2. Szpunar SM; Eklund SA; Burt BA. Sugar consumption and caries
in schoolchildren with low caries experience. Community Dentistry
Oral Epidemiology, 1995 Jun, 23(3):142-6
3. Holbrook WP; Arnadottir IB; Takazoe I; Birkhed D; Frostell G.
Longitudinal study of caries, cariogenic bacteria and diet in
just before and after starting school. European Journal of Oral
Sciences, 1995 Feb, 103(1):42-5
4. Ruxton CH; Garceau FJ; Cottrell RC. Guidelines for sugar
consumption in Europe: is a quantitative approach justified?
Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999 Jul, 53(7):503-13
5. Freeman R; Breistein B; McQueen A; Stewart M. The dental health
status of five-year-old children in north and west Belfast.
Dental Health, 1997 Dec, 14(4):253-7.
6. Gibson S; Williams S. Dental caries in pre-school children:
associations with social class, toothbrushing habit and consumption
sugars and sugar-containing foods. Further analysis of data from
National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years.
Caries Research, 1999, 33(2):101-13
7. Walker AR. Nutritional and dental implications of high and low
intakes of sugar. International Journal of Food Sciences and
Nutrition, 1995 May, 46(2):161-9
Journal of THE AMERICAN DIETETIC ASSOCIATION
APRIL 1999 VOLUME 99/NUMBER 4
Soft drink consumption among US children and adolescents: Nutritional
Lisa Harnack, DrPH, RD, Jamie Stang, PhD, RD, and Mary
Story, PhD, RD
Objective To determine whether carbonated soft drink consumption is
associated with consumption of milk, fruit juice, and the
nutrients concentrated in these beverages.
Design Data collected as part of the 1994 Continuing Survey of Food
Intakes by Individuals were analyzed. Information on food and nutrient
intake was derived from 2 days of dietary recall data collected via
an in-person interview.
Subjects and participants Nationally representative sample of people
of all ages residing in the United States (response rate=76.2%).
Analyses were restricted to children aged 2 to 18 years (N=1,810).
Statistical analyses performed Logistic regression analyses were
conducted to predict the odds of low milk and juice consumption by
soft drink consumption level. To determine whether intake of select
nutrients varied by soft drink consumption, multiple linear
modeling was conducted. Analyses were conducted using sample weights
and software appropriate for the survey design.
Results Energy intake was positively associated with consumption of
nondiet soft drinks. For example, mean adjusted energy intake was
1,830 kcal/day for school-aged children who were nonconsumers of soft
drinks compared with 2,018 kcal/day for children in this age group
who consumed an average of 9 oz of soda or more per day. Those in the
highest soft drink consumption category consumed less milk and fruit
juice compared with those in the lowest consumption category
Conclusions Nutrition education messages targeted to children and/or
Their parents should encourage limited consumption of soft drinks.
Policies that limit children's access to soft drinks at day care
centers and schools should be promoted.
(J Am Diet Assoc. 1999;99:436-441.)
* PubMed-articles that relate to caries, soda and schools:
1. ASDC J Dent Child 1997 Jan-Feb;64(1):55-60
Soft drink logos on baby bottles: do they influence what is fed to
Siener K, Rothman D, Farrar J
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of the Pacific, USA.
2. J Am Dent Assoc. 1999 Aug;130(8):1158
On soda pop.
Folgert E, Fallon T, Schopfer G.
No abstract available.
* JADA 1999 Mar;130:308-312
Above Message Sent By: "Mark Siegal" <MSIEGAL at gw.odh.state.oh.us>
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Date: Thu, 05 Oct 2000 15:21:35 -0400
From: "Mark Siegal" <MSIEGAL at gw.odh.state.oh.us>
To: <dental-public-health at list.pitt.edu>
Subject: Soda Pop and Caries Summary
Sender: owner-dental-public-health at list.pitt.edu
Reply-To: "Mark Siegal" <MSIEGAL at gw.odh.state.oh.us>
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